Advance archaeological archaeology chronometric dating in in museum science natural selection dating
The work reported here represents the large-scale excavations at the IA copper production site of Khirbat en-Nahas (KEN) (12) and is a part of a deep-time study of the impact of mining and metallurgy over the past 8 millennia in Jordan's Faynan district.Faynan is part of an IA polity known from the HB as Edom, located in the Saharo-Arabian desert zone in southern Transjordan. BCE, Edom extended westward across the Wadi Arabah, from Transjordan into the Negev Desert.
To establish a foundation for the 4-room building, the top of the early industrial debris mound was truncated and leveled to form a surface for construction.
Beginning in 2002, we carried out large-scale IA surveys and excavations in the lowlands.
The largest site is KEN (≈10 hectares) with 100 buildings visible on the site surface, including one of the largest IA Levantine desert fortresses (Fig. KEN was first systematically mapped by Glueck in the early 1930s (13) and identified as the center of Solomon's mining activities.
Archaeologists such as Glueck metaphorically carried the trowel in 1 hand and the Bible in the other, searching the archaeological landscape of the southern Levant for confirmation of the biblical narrative from the Patriarchs to the United Monarchy under David and Solomon to other personages, places, and events mentioned in the sacred text.
Beginning in the 1980s, this paradigm came under severe attack, primarily by so-called biblical minimalist scholars who argued that as the HB was edited in its final form during the 5th century (c.) BC (3), any reference in the text to events earlier than 500 BC were false (4).